Vitamin E

Also indexed as:E Vitamin, Tocopherol (Vitamin E), Alpha Tocopherol, D-Alpha Tocopherol
master.k.m.us.Default Taste of the Season

Vitamin E is an antioxidant that protects cell membranes and other fat-soluble parts of the body, such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL; “bad” cholesterol) cholesterol, from damage.

  • Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.
  • Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.
  • For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.

Our proprietary “Star-Rating” system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.

For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.

This supplement has been used in connection with the following health conditions:

Used for AmountWhy
Anemia
60 to 75 IU per daymaster.k.m.us.3Star Taste of the Season[3 stars]
Supplementing with vitamin E may improve anemia in cases of vitamin E deficiency.
Anemia
800 IU dailyas Vitamin E Oralmaster.k.m.us.3Star Taste of the Season[3 stars]
Studies have reported that large amounts of vitamin E improve hemolytic anemia caused by a genetic deficiency of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD).
Epilepsy in Children
400 IU dailymaster.k.m.us.3Star Taste of the Season[3 stars]
Supplementing with vitamin E can help improve treatment results in children.
Immune Function
200 IU dailymaster.k.m.us.3Star Taste of the Season[3 stars]
Vitamin E enhances some measures of immune-cell activity in the elderly.
Intermittent Claudication
400 to 600 IU dailymaster.k.m.us.3Star Taste of the Season[3 stars]
Taking vitamin E may improve blood flow and increase walking capacity.
Rheumatoid Arthritis
1,200 to 1,800 IU dailymaster.k.m.us.3Star Taste of the Season[3 stars]
Vitamin E is an important antioxidant, protecting joints against oxidative damage. Supplementing with vitamin E can help ease symptoms, including pain.
Sunburn

(Vitamin C)
2,000 to 3,000 mg vitamin C and 1,000 to 2,000 IU vitamin Emaster.k.m.us.3Star Taste of the Season[3 stars]
Antioxidants may protect the skin from sunburn due to free radical–producing ultraviolet rays. Combinations of vitamin E and C offer protection against ultraviolet rays.
Tardive Dyskinesia
1,600 IU dailymaster.k.m.us.3Star Taste of the Season[3 stars]
Vitamin E has been shown to reduce the severity of tardive dyskinesia.
Alzheimer’s Disease
2,000 IU dailymaster.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
Antioxidant supplements such as vitamin E have been associated with lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease and improved brain function in middle-aged and older adults.
Anemia and Kidney Dialysis
800 IU dailyas Vitamin E Oralmaster.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
Studies have reported that large amounts of vitamin E improve anemia caused by kidney dialysis.
Angina
50 IU dailymaster.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
Low levels of antioxidant vitamins in the blood, particularly vitamin E, are associated with greater rates of angina. In one study supplementing with small amounts of vitamin E had a minor benefit in people with angina.
Athletic Performance, Exercise Recovery, and High-Altitude Exercise Performance
400 IU dailymaster.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
Antioxidants, including vitamin E, neutralize exercise-related free radicals before they can damage the body, so antioxidants may aid in exercise recovery. Vitamin E has been shown to benefit exercise performance at high altitudes.
Cold Sores
Apply cotton saturated with oil for 15 minutes every three hours on day one, then three times daily on days two and threemaster.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
Applying vitamin E oil directly to a cold sore appears to accelerate healing.
Dermatitis Herpetiformis
10 IU dailymaster.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
Supplementing with selenium and vitamin E has been shown to correct an antioxidant deficiency common in DH.
Down’s Syndrome
100 to 400 IU dailymaster.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
Taking vitamin E may improve antioxidant protection. Ask your doctor before supplementing with this vitamin.
Dysmenorrhea
400 to 600 IU of vitamin E a day for five days, beginning two days before menstruationmaster.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
Taking vitamin E beginning two days before menstruation may help prevent severe pain.
Endometriosis

(Vitamin C)
1,000 mg vitamin C and 1,200 IU vitamin E dailymaster.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
A combination of vitamin C and vitamin E can help lessen the pain of endometriosis.
Hay Fever
800 IU dailymaster.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
In a study of people with hay fever, adding vitamin E to regular anti-allergy treatment during the pollen season significantly reduced the severity of hay fever symptoms.
Heart Attack
400 to 800 IU dailymaster.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
Supplementing with vitamin E, synthetic or natural, may help reduce heart attack risk.
Hypertension
200 IU dailymaster.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
In a study of people with high blood pressure, vitamin E was significantly more effective than placebo at reducing both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
Intermittent Claudication

(Alpha-Linolenic Acid, Fish Oil, Folic Acid, Oleic Acid, Vitamin B6)
200 mg of EPA and 130 mg of DHA daily, plus small amounts of vitamin B6, folic acid, vitamin E, oleic acid, and alpha-linolenic acidmaster.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
In one study, men with intermittent claudication who drank a milk product fortified with fish oil, vitamin B6, folic acid, vitamin E, oleic acid, and alpha-linolenic acid could walk further without pain than those who drank regular milk.
Leukoplakia
800 IU dailymaster.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
According to a review of clinical trials, the combination of beta-carotene and vitamin E has led to complete or partial remissions in six of eight trials studying people with leukoplakia.
Lung Cancer
200 to 400 IU dailymaster.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
High vitamin E levels have been associated with a reduced lung cancer risk. In one trial, nonsmokers who took vitamin E had a 45% lower lung cancer risk compared with those who did not take the vitamin.
Menopause
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
Vitamin E may help reduce menopause symptoms. Many doctors suggest that women going through menopause try vitamin E for at least three months to see if symptoms improve.
Neuropathy
900 IU daily master.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
Vitamin E supplementation may protect against neuropathy.
Osgood-Schlatter Disease
400 IU a day with 150 mcg a day of seleniummaster.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
Taking a combination of vitamin E and selenium may help the healing.
Osteoarthritis
400 to 1,600 IU per daymaster.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
As an antioxidant, vitamin E appears to help protect joints.
Pancreatic Insufficiency
270 IU dailymaster.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
Taking antioxidant supplements, such as vitamin E, may lessen pain and prevent pancreatitis recurrences.
Parkinson’s Disease

(Vitamin C)
3,000 mg of vitamin C and 3,200 IU of vitamin Emaster.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
Supplementing with vitamins C and E may help people with early Parkinson’s disease delay the need for medication.
Premenstrual Syndrome
300 IU dailymaster.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
Vitamin E may decrease PMS symptoms, according to one study.
Prostate Cancer
50 IU dailymaster.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
Supplementing with vitamin E as mixed tocopherols may help lower prostate cancer risk, especially in smokers.
Retinopathy and Retrolental Fibroplasia
Consult a qualified healthcare practitionermaster.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
Large amounts of vitamin E have been shown to reduce the incidence of severe retinopathy in premature infants.
Skin Ulcers
400 IU dailyas Vitamin E Oralmaster.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
Antioxidants, such as vitamin E, are depleted in healing skin tissue. Studies have shown that vitamin E taken orally to be effective at preventing skin ulcers and promoting healing.
Sunburn

(Vitamin C)
Apply a formula containing 2% vitamin E and 5% vitamin C before sun exposuremaster.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
Studies have found sunscreen-like effects from topical application of the vitamin C and vitamin E combination.
Thalassemia
Refer to label instructions as Vitamin E Injectionmaster.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
Studies have found that vitamin E supplements reduce free radical damage to red blood cells in thalassemia patients. Vitamin E injections have reduced the need for blood transfusions caused by thalassemia.
Type 1 Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy
900 to 1,800 IU dailymaster.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
Vitamin E supplementation may protect against diabetic neuropathy.
Type 1 Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy
1800 IU dailymaster.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
Supplementing with vitamin E may combat free radicals associated with diabetic retinopathy.
Type 2 Diabetes and Diabetic Neuropathy
900 IU dailymaster.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
Vitamin E supplementation may protect against neuropathy.
Type 2 Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy
1800 IU dailymaster.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
Vitamin E supplementation may protect against diabetic retinopathy.
Wound Healing
400 IU dailymaster.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
Supplementing with vitamin E may enhance healing and prevent adhesion formation after surgery, applied topically, the vitamin may help prevent scarring.
Yellow Nail Syndrome
800 IU dailymaster.k.m.us.2Star Taste of the Season[2 stars]
Vitamin E has been used successfully with people who have yellow nail syndrome in several preliminary reports.
Abnormal Pap Smear
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
Women with cervical dysplasia may have lower blood levels of vitamin E compared with healthy women.
Age-Related Cognitive Decline
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
Use of vitamin E, alone or with vitamin C, has been associated with better cognitive function and a reduced risk of certain forms of dementia (but not Alzheimer’s disease).
Alcohol Withdrawal
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
Alcohol-related anxiety may be improved by a combination of vitamin E, vitamin B6, niacin, and vitamin C, though the high amounts of niacin and vitamin B6 used in the study need a doctor’s supervision.
Asthma

(Vitamin C, Selenium)
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
There is some evidence that a combination of antioxidants vitamin E, vitamin C, and selenium may help prevent asthma thought to be caused by air pollution.
Atherosclerosis
100 to 200 IU dailymaster.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
Vitamin E is an antioxidant that protects LDL cholesterol from oxidative damage and has been linked to heart disease prevention. Many doctors recommend supplementing with vitamin E to lower the risk of atherosclerosis and heart attacks.
Bronchitis
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
Vitamin E appears to help keep the lungs healthy and prevent damage from environmental pollution and cigarette smoke exposure.
Burns
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
Using the antioxidant vitamin E topically on minor burns is a popular remedy. If applying vitamin E topically, use the tocopherol form.
Cataracts
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
Low blood levels of vitamin E have been linked to increased risk of forming cataracts. Vitamin E supplements have been reported to protect against cataracts.
Childhood Diseases
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
Healthy immune function requires adequate amounts of vitamin E. Animal studies have shown that vitamin E increases immune cell activity and reduces virus activity.
Colon Cancer
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
In most preliminary reports, vitamin E appears to protect against cancer.
Cystic Fibrosis
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
The fat malabsorption associated with cystic fibrosis often leads to a deficiency of fat-soluble vitamins, such as vitamin E. Supplementation can help counteract the deficiency.
Dupuytren’s Contracture
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
Supplementing with vitamin E may improve Dupuytren’s contracture, although research on the topic has been conflicting.
Epilepsy in Adults
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
Supplementing with vitamin E has been shown to improve treatment results in children, and similar effects may be seen in adults.
Female Infertility
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
In one study, infertile couples given vitamin E showed significantly improved fertility.
Fibrocystic Breast Disease
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
Some studies have reported that vitamin E reduces symptoms of FBS, many women try it for three months to see if it helps.
Fibromyalgia
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
Vitamin E was used in one early study with beneficial and sometimes dramatic results.
Gingivitis
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
Vitamin E is often recommended by doctors to help prevent and treat periodontitis.
Goiter
0.5 to 8 grams dailymaster.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
Vitamin E levels are lower in people with goiter than in those without. Supplementing with vitamin E prevented goiter formation in iodine-deficient conditions in some research.
Halitosis
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
Vitamin E is often recommended by doctors to help prevent and treat periodontitis.
Hepatitis
900 to 2,700 mg per daymaster.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
Some trials have shown vitamin E to be helpful in treating hepatitis B and to reduce liver damage in people with hepatitis C.
High Cholesterol
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
In one trial, supplementing with vitamin E increased levels of protective HDL cholesterol.
HIV and AIDS Support
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
In test-tube studies, vitamin E improved the effectiveness of the anti-HIV drug zidovudine (AZT) while reducing its toxicity.
Hypoglycemia
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
Vitamin E helps control blood sugar levels in people with diabetes, and since there are similarities in the way the body regulates high and low blood sugar levels, it might be helpful for hypoglycemia as well.
Insulin Resistance Syndrome
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
Vitamin E has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity in both healthy and hypertensive people and may have a similar effect on people with IRS.
Kidney Stones
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
In one study, supplementing with synthetic vitamin E was found to reduce several risk factors for kidney stone formation in people with elevated levels of urinary oxalate.
Liver Cirrhosis
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
Vitamin E has been shown to decrease damage in cirrhotic livers and may reduce immune abnormalities that contribute to the development of the disease.
Macular Degeneration
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
Sunlight triggers oxidative damage in the eye, which in turn can cause macular degeneration. Vitamin E protects against oxidative damage and may reduce macular degeneration risk.
Male Infertility
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
Vitamin E supplementation appears to enhance fertility, possibly by decreasing free-radical damage to sperm cells.
Menorrhagia
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
In a study of women with menorrhagia associated with the use of an intrauterine device (IUD), supplementing with vitamin E corrected the problem in all cases within ten weeks.
Pre- and Post-Surgery Health
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
Some studies have found that vitamin E levels decrease after surgery, supplementation may correct a deficiency. Vitamin E may also prevent scarring when used topically after surgery.
Restless Legs Syndrome
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
In one study, supplementing with vitamin E produced complete relief in seven out of nine people with restless leg syndrome.
Retinopathy
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
Vitamin E has been found to prevent retinopathy in people with a rare genetic disease known as abetalipoproteinemia.
Shingles and Postherpetic Neuralgia
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
Some doctors have found vitamin E supplements to be effective for people with postherpetic neuralgia. Vitamin E oil can also be applied to the skin.
Sickle Cell Anemia
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
Low vitamin E levels have been associated with higher numbers of diseased cells in children and with greater symptom frequency in adults. Supplementing with the vitamin can help restore levels.
Skin Ulcers
Refer to label instructions as Vitamin E Topicalmaster.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
Antioxidants such as vitamin E, are depleted in healing skin tissue. One study found that topically applied vitamin E shortened the healing time of skin ulcers.
Sprains and Strains and Exercise-Related Muscle Injury
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
Antioxidant supplements, including vitamin E, may help prevent exercise-related muscle injuries by neutralizing free radicals produced during strenuous activities.
Stroke
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
Studies have found that people who eat foods high in antioxidants such vitamin E have less carotid stenosis, a risk factor for stroke. Vitamin E plus aspirin has also been shown to be effective in reducing stroke risk.
Type 1 Diabetes

(Selenium, Vitamin A, Vitamin C)
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
A combination of the antioxidants selenium, vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E has been shown to improve diabetic retinopathy.
Type 1 Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy

(Selenium, Vitamin A, Vitamin C)
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
Antioxidant nutrients including selenium, vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E may combat free radicals associated with diabetic retinopathy.
Vaginitis
Refer to label instructions master.k.m.us.1Star Taste of the Season[1 star]
Some doctors recommend vitamin E (taken orally, topically, or vaginally) for certain types of vaginitis.

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The information presented in Aisle7 is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. Self-treatment is not recommended for life-threatening conditions that require medical treatment under a doctor's care. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires June 2015.